10 April 2018

The Twisting Kick

The twisting kick 비틀어차기 as it is called in ITF Taekwon-Do is, I believe, an iconic kick of Korean martial arts. It is a prominent kick in ITF Taekwon-Do, practised in Kukki Taekwondo (although much less so in WT Taekwondo*), it is a staple kick in Taekkyeon, and can also be found in Tang Soo Do curricula, with variations of it present in Hapkido as well. It is a kick seldom observed in Japanese and Chinese martial arts, although variations of it is sure to be present in some non-Korean martial arts. I have found it an effective technique to use on non-Korean stylists whom are unfamiliar with this deceptive kick.

Twisting Kick at Middle Height
Photo taken by VS Force ©

The term "twisting" is a translation of the Korean biteul-eo 비틀어, based on the verb biteul-da 비틀다, which means to twist or wring something, for instance wringing water out of a wet towel. In the case of the twisting kick, it denotes the outward corkscrew motion of the kick, and also the twisting motion that occurs throughout the body when kicking; often the torso and arms are twisted in the opposite direction of the turning of the hips and vector of the kick. Not only is the kick surprisingly deceptive because of its uncommon out-curved line trajectory, but with correct training it can also be quite powerful because of the way it accelerates. To get power in the kick, one has to strongly rotate the hip outwards, swinging the knee in an arc towards the target, and finally flicking the lower leg out, all in a smooth whip-like snap. The twisting kick is almost always performed with the ball of the foot in ITF Taekwon-Do, as I demonstrate in the photo above.

The video below is a tutorial for how the kick is usually performed in ITF Taekwon-Do.


You can see a WT / Kukki Taekwondo tutorial of their version of the twisting kick here.

For beginners, I teach the twisting kick in steps: First, lift the knee up as if you are going to do a front kick. Next, drop the knee side-ways, so that your lower leg aims towards the horizontal. Finally, flick the lower leg out, into a snap kick. Now attempt to do these steps fluidly, rather than separately. To do the kick at middle and high heights, the knee should be brought diagonally across (rather than straight up), then the hips should be swung outward so that the kick comes out in a nice C-shape arc toward the target.

High Twisting Kick
Image from ITF Encyclopaedia, Vol. 4
In ITF Taekwon-Do one is usually admonished to keep the standing foot flat at the moment of impact because it ensures a more stable base. However, there are certain kicks, such as this one and the spinning reverse turning kick, where the forces involved in the kick put a lot of strain on the knee-joint of the standing leg. Therefore, especially when the target is at a weird angle, I'm a little lax with the flat-foot rule. I let the tensions in my joints and body indicate if it is "safe" to put my heal flat or not. Generally, when I perform this kick at middle or high sections, I do not have my standing foot flat, but rotate on the ball of the foot. Pictures in the ITF Encyclopaedia also show the heel of the standing foot lifted off the floor at the moment of impact.


At lower heights, the twisting kick is quite effective when targeting the lower shin, side of the knee, the inner thigh, and the groin of an opponent positioned in front of you. The side of the knee can be kicked either on the inside or outside and will cause the opponent's leg to buckle. Be careful, as the knee and supporting tendons can be seriously harmed by such an attack, especially when the leg which is being attacked is bearing much weight.

As a middle section kick, it is ideally used when an opponent stands to the side-front of you. Common targets include the floating ribs, bladder, solar plexus (diaphragm), and kidneys. In ITF Taekwon-Do the ball of the foot is the primary attacking tool. When wearing shoes, the toes (tip of the shoe) is an effective weapon. For a middle twisting kick the instep is not an effective attacking tool and not prescribed in ITF Taekwon-Do. However, an often under utilized option is the knee. The twisting knee kick works very well at a middle height for someone standing close to you and towards your oblique.


High Twisting Kick
Photo taken by VS Force ©


High Twisting Kick
Image from ITF Encyclopaedia, Vol. 4
As a high kick, a flexible practitioner may effectively employ this kick against an opponent standing right next to them, kicking their face. The knock-out point on the side of the chin (acupressure point ST-5, known in Korean as daeyeong 대영) is a good target. In the Korean martial art Taekkyeon the high twisting kick is often used for an opponent in front of you. Using the instep as the attacking tool, the kick targets vital spots on the side of the head, such as the chin, the angle of mandible, or temple.

In Taekkyeon, the twisting kick is known as naechagi 내차기, and is usually used to attack either the lower limb or the head. The low kick targets the ankle or lower shin, inner thigh or inside of the knee; while the high kick is aimed at the head. An attack to the head is called a high (nopeun 노픈) naechagi or a gyeotchigi 곁치기. The video below shows a gyeotchigi.


In Hapkido the slap kick (bitgyeo chagi 빗겨 차기) is reminiscent of a twisting kick. The verb bitgyeo-da suggest a skidding quality. Hapkido's slap kick is similar to an ITF vertical kick, but it hits the target in a diagonal skidding motion, unlike the ITF vertical kick that slaps the target with more of penetrative force, rather than skidding. Hapkido's bitgyeo chagi also uses the instep as the attacking tool, like Taekkyeon's gyeotchigi; whereas ITF's vertical kick employs the footsword.  There is another kick in Hapkido that has a very slight twisting quality to it, namely the center-toe kick, also known as front toe kick or spear foot kick. The Korean jokki jireugi 족기 지르기 translates as toe-stabbing kick. The kick is performed like a front kick with the toes pointed (spear foot), however the extended leg twists outward in the hip-socket at the moment of impact. The most common target is the side of the groin or other sensitive areas and pressure points. I'm not sure if Hapkido's front toe kick really qualifies as a "twisting" kick as the general vector of the kick is not performed in a C-shape arc.

As for the twisting kick in non-Korean martial arts, I have not yet been convinced that it is the same kick. I've been pointed to the uchi mawashi geri and gyaku mawashi geri in the Karate styles. I've looked at several examples of these kicks on YouTube and what I've seen are simply not twisting kicks as I understand it; instead, they are what we in ITF Taekwon-Do may call hooking kick and outward vertical kick, or fan kick (buchae chagi 부채 차기). After more personal research I found a kick in Kyokushin Karate called uchi heisoku geri, which I think may very well be considered a twisting kick. I wonder if the fact that the founder of Kyokushin Karate was a Korean, may be the reason this kick is part of their curriculum. I've been told that there is an equivalent kick in some Chinese martial arts as well as in the Brazilian martial art Capoeira; however, I have not been pointed to specific examples to be able to confirm this.

The twisting kick is one of my favourite kicks. It is a relative short range kick, and is therefore useful in the punching range and because of its unconventional vector, it is quite difficult to notice and defend against. Before practising the twisting kick, I strongly recommend warming up your knees and stretching your groin and hip flexor muscles. Another tip for the kick is to keep your leg relaxed and perform the kick in a whip-like action as this will increase the speed and power of the kick.

...ooOoo...

* While the twisting kick is part of traditional Taekwon-Do curricula, and can therefore be found in some Kukki Taekwondo schools, I think it is seldom practiced in WT Taekwondo schools. It has been my experience that most WT Taekwondo practitioners I have spoken to, don't practice it, and surprisingly, many people don't know about it. I think the reason for this is that the twisting kick was not powerful enough to score a point in full-contact WT Taekwondo competitions, in part because it is often taught with the instep rather than the ball of the foot, in Kukki/WT schools. However, with the new WT rules that allow for points scored to the head with light contact kicks, it is foreseeable that the twisting kick may make a comeback.

4 comments:

Traditional Taekwondo Ramblings Blog said...

When you say not generally practised in the wt taekwondo do you mean the sport version? I can't speak for the totality of kukki taekwondo (the martial art) but the taekwondo I grew up in always had and still practice the twisting kick:-)

Skryfblok said...

Thank you for the comment. I updated the essay based on my observations here in Korea.

Anonymous said...

Hello,

your articles are interesting. I hope that you do not take offense to my corrections.

regards


1/
Taekkyeon, the twisting kick is known asnaechagi 내차기,
**(It is also known as 재차기).

2/
and is usually used to attack either the lower limb or the head.
**(In taekkyon, if the lower limb is kicked with this kick, it is only as a fake before kicking else where. The reason being, kicking low with this kick does not hurt the opponent. Taekkyon practitioners kick with the top part of the foot for this kick).


3The low kick targets the ankle or lower shin, inner thigh or inside of the knee; while the high kick is aimed at the head.
**(In taekkyon, this kick to the ankle or lower shin is not a kick. It is a trip. It is called 밧장거리.)
**(Taekkyon practitioners do not employ this kick to the inner thigh. Kicking the inner thigh does result in much pain)

4/
An attack to the head is called a high (nopeun 노픈) naechagi or a gyeotchigi 곁치기.
**(곁치기 refers to kicking the mid section of the body with this kick(above hips and below shoulders)).

Skryfblok said...

Dear Anonymous,

Thank you for the information. No offense taken.

My Taekkyeon experience is in "Kyulyun Taekkyun", so most of my terminology is based on their terms, although I also referenced other Taekkyeon books I have. The Kyulyun Taekkyeon group in Seoul also do more offensive type of techniques, not only for the "game" of Taekkyeon, so even their low kicks are sometimes meant to painful to the opponent and not only as sweeps and trips.

Nevertheless, I appreciate your input.